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“George is ejected because Fanny is cheaper”

The expanded role of women in the workforce marked a moment of crisis for some professionals who felt that “women’s work [was] gradually being substituted for men’s.” They argued that women were desirable only because they were “content” to work for less pay. But one author, writing in the Phonetic Journal in 1899, countered, “We doubt whether cheapness was, — at all events, originally, — the cause of the appearance of women’s work in the typewriting world. Women took up typewriting in the first instance mainly because men refused to have anything to do with the machine, and somebody was required to work it.”

Still, the impulse to place women in a category persisted: “Our own impression is that women are usually selected in those cases in which there is little call for anything more than shorthand and typewriting, or anything more, at all events, than clerical work of some kind, men being chosen generally when there is a question of the operator doing something more,—for instance, seeing customers, taking messages, collecting money, and the like.”

The Phonetic Journal, September 16, 1899 –

© 2021, Mark Adams. All rights reserved.


The foot treadle was a bit awkward

First-hand accounts of people using the Sholes & Glidden Type Writer are fascinating. The foot treadle apparently did not appeal to many.

Shorthand & Typewriting (London), January 1900 –

© 2021, Mark Adams. All rights reserved.


A Pioneer Typewriter

From The Phonetic Journal, October 28, 1899 –

Robert Messenger blogs about the Hood invention here.

© 2021, Mark Adams. All rights reserved.

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The one-armed typist, a workhouse girl

From various news accounts, Ethel Thomas lost her right arm around the age of 11. By the age of 16, she was living in a workhouse in England and learned to type and take shorthand. Her story garnered sympathy, and authorities eventually placed her in a situation where she could learn to weave. Whatever came of her is unknown, but her story is worth remembering.

The Pall Mall Gazette (London), July 11, 1900 –

Birmingham Daily Post, September 13, 1900 –

© 2021, Mark Adams. All rights reserved.


Francesco Rampazetto and the Scrittura Tattile

Francesco Rampazetto was an Italian printer, noted for his edition of Dante’s Divine Comedy. He was also a member of a printers guild.

Earliest typewriter?

In 2014, Francesco Rampazetto reentered the typewriter narrative when the Museo Dinamico Della Technologigia A. Olivetti posted a blog entry asserting Rampazetto as the inventor of the earliest typewriter:

The first attempt, of which we have knowledge, unanimously recognized, to build a typewriter, which replaced the common handwriting, dates back to 1575. The Italian typographer and publisher, active in Venice, Francesco Rampazetto, designs a mechanical device with the intent to allow the blind to communicate with each other and with others. It was a rudimentary mechanism consisting of cube-shaped pieces of wood, bearing characters in relief. – link

By this account, Rampazetto precedes, by nearly 140 years, the Englishman Henry Mill, who patented a mechanical writing machine in 1714.

Subsequent to the museum’s posting, a slew of bloggers published articles asserting Rampazetto as the inventor of the earliest typewriter. Wikipedia references the museum’s post and places Rampazetto first in its list of inventors.

But did he invent or even design a machine called the Scrittura Tattile?

Documentation lacking

Problematically, there is no documentation for such an invention. No patent. No image. No primary source documents. The earliest reference to Rampazetto’s device is a 1924 article in Il Carrorcio, an Italian-language American magazine, which wrote (translated by Google):

The idea of replacing handwriting with typing first arose in favor of the blind From the Roman Rampazzetto 1575 who was the first in the world to try to make the blind correspond to seers by means of a special tactile writing on a species of nuts.1

The magazine cited a pamphlet by Count Emilio Budan of Venice, which was published in 1911: “J Precursori delle moderne macchine da scrivere” or “Precursors of the modern typewriter.” While that document was frequently quoted in subsequent narratives, those sources omit that Budan mentions Rampazetto and indicate that the narrative begins in 1713 with Henry Mill.

The pamphlet is apparently available in some libraries, but none of which I have access.

Il Carroccio cited Budan’s pamphlet previously in 1916 but did not mention Rampazetto. Nor did the magazine mention Rampazetto in 1923, when once more it cited Budan’s pamphlet. The 1924 article, containing one sentence about the 1575 invention, appears to be the only source for the claim.

Budan wrote at least two pamphlets, but none apparently covers any history before 1714. The following is from Typewriter Topics (1907):


That Francesco Rampazetto invented any type of writing machine is doubtful, though it is worth exploring why and how his name came to be associated with the invention. It is evident that many individuals attempted to design a writing machine through the ages, and it is possible that this Italian printer ranks among them, but until further documentation can be provided, Henry Mill ranks first.

Note: A biography of Rampazetto can be found on this page – click here.

1924 source

Il Carroccio (New York), July 1924 –

Il Carroccio (New York), 1923 –

© 2021, Mark Adams. All rights reserved.

  1. Edited: Google Translate finished the sentence with “to the Nob,” but, as Richard Polt noted in his comment, “Nob” attaches to the following clause as a title for the next inventor. []